Glossary

100 year Floodplain Flood zones are defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to identify varying levels of flood risk and inform the Flood Insurance Rate Map. Floods are the second-most common natural disaster, and they often occur quickly in low-lying areas after heavy rains. The 100-year floodplain is the area that has a 1-percent-annual-chance of flooding and is also referred to as the base flood, while moderate flood hazard areas are between the limits of the base flood and the 0.2-percent-annual-chance or 500-year flood. Source: FEMA

500-year Floodplain Flood zones are defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to identify varying levels of flood risk and inform the Flood Insurance Rate Map. Floods are the second-most common natural disaster, and they often occur quickly in low-lying areas after heavy rains. The 500-year floodplain is the area that has a 0.2-percent annual chance of flooding and is also referred to as the moderate flood hazard area. These are between the limits of the 1-percent-annual-chance (base flood) and the 0.2-percent-annual-chance. Source: FEMA

Naturalness of 500-year floodplain Source: Custom TNC product (not available for download)

Aboveground live carbon storage The amount of carbon stored in live vegetation such as trees, shrubs, and grasses. A common method to estimate aboveground carbon includes transferring calculations of biomass sampled at the plot scale to remotely sensed data such as satellite imagery or aerial LiDAR using metrics such as vegetation type, size class, and canopy density. Broadcasting individual biomass samples to remotely sensed data enables wide-area estimation of carbon storage. Source: Gonzalez et al. 2015

Agricultural Buffer Transition Area Jurisdiction: Gilroy Protection: Agricultural mitigation requires equal protection (1:1 ratio) for the loss of agricultural lands that no longer will be designated agricultural land due to conversion to urban uses and require a 150 foot buffer between new urban and agricultural uses.

Agricultural Conservation Area Jurisdiction: Brentwood Protection: Through the use of policies concerning the conversion of agricultural lands and the creation of buffer zones between agricultural and nonagricultural uses, it will be possible to conserve areas of agricultural land.

Agricultural Enterprise Area Jurisdiction: San Mateo County Protection: Privately owned lands meeting zoning designation and general land use criteria for eligibility under the Williamson Act for landowners considering entering into an Agricultural Preserve and Williamson Act contract, non-regulatory and non-obligatory.

Agricultural lands Source: Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program

Agricultural policies The jurisdictional policies adopted to protect farms and ranches from urban development. Policies include Napa County's Measure J and Solano County's Orderly Growth Initiative, in which a proposed change in zoning to land with agricultural zoning designations or non-conforming use of the land must be approved by a vote of the people in the county. Includes city and county area policies that prioritize agricultural conservation of natural resources and preservation of farms and ranches, based upon counties' general plans and zoning maps. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Agricultural Priority Area Jurisdiction: Morgan Hill Protection: Agricultural Priority Area identified as the Morgan Hill's first priority for conservation inside the city's sphere of influence.

Alameda Whipsnake Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: The Altamont Pass Wind Resources Area Conservation Plan is being developed to minimize impacts to birds caused by wind turbines, and conserve birds and other terrestrial species while allowing wind energy development and operations in the area.

Antioch Dunes Evening-Primrose Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

At Risk of Urban Development 2017 The likelihood of urban development over the next several decades based on a spatial comparison of weighted or scored layers between development pressure factors against policy protection factors. The probability of development is divided into three categories as high risk of urban development within 10 years, medium risk from 10 to 30 years and low risk as more than 30 years chance of developing. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Baker's Larkspur Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Bay Area Critical Linkages - Large landscape Blocks Large Landscape Blocks are areas of high ecological integrity that build upon existing protected areas and serve as the end points for the Critical Linkages. The California Protected Areas Database and Conservation Easements were used as the foundation to delineate large landscape blocks for the greater Bay Area region. Protected areas were aggregated if within 500m of each other (easements whose primary purpose was agriculture, farmland, or cultural/historical were excluded from this step). Urban land was then removed from the resulting 500m aggregation to ensure only natural, grazing, and agriculture land was included in the aggregation along with protected lands and conservation easements. A roadless area analysis was then conducted to identify areas of high ecological integrity. Source: Bay Area Open Space Council, Conservation Lands Network

Bay Area Critical Linkages - Linkage The broader regions of connectivity important to facilitate the movement of multiple species and maintain ecological processes. The Bay Area Critical Linkages is a network of habitat linkages designed for a number of focal species. These linkages, together with the large landscape blocks they connect and the key riparian corridors, buffer zones, and important baylands they encompass, represent the mosaic of habitat needed for conserving biodiversity. The Bay Area Critical Linkages is meant to build upon our existing conservation investments and identify those areas needed to maintain those investments. Source: Bay Area Open Space Council, Conservation Lands Network

Bay Checkerspot Butterfly Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Bay/Delta Conservation Plan (NCCP/HCP) Jurisdiction: California Department of Water Resources, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Protection: The Plan goals are to provide for the conservation and management of endangered and threatened species through habitat preservation and restoration as well as streamline environmental permitting process for water projects and some development.

Baylands The San Francisco Bay has lost an estimated 85 percent of its historic wetlands to development or other alteration. Thus, all remaining wetland habitat is a conservation priority. The San Francisco Estuary Institute’s (SFEI) map of modern baylands shows remnant tidal marsh, as well as filled and diked former baylands. Learn more about the baylands at www.sfei.org/ecoatlas. Source: San Franciso Estuary Institute, BBARI v2

Baylands policy The areas identified as important for protection and conservation falling under the jurisdiction of the Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC). The Commission holds authority over development projects falling within the San Francisco Bay, including Suisun, San Pablo, Honker, Richardson, San Rafael, San Leandro and Grizzly Bays and the Carquinez Strait; certain waterways that flow into the Bay; certain salt ponds or managed wetlands around the Bay; a shoreline band jurisdiction which extends 100 feet inland from the Bay; and the Suisun Marsh. Layer created by Greenbelt Alliance based upon plan maps and jurisdictional coverage description available through San Francisco Bay Plan website. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

BCDC Jurisdiction and Authority Jurisdiction: BCDC Protection: SF BCDC oversees the SF Bay and the surrounding shoreline, salt ponds, managed wetlands, and certain waterways in order to protect the Bay as a great natural resource for the benefit of present and future generations as well as develop the Bay and its shoreline to their highest potential with a minimum of Bay filling.

Benicia General Plan: Visual Character Jurisdiction: Benicia Protection: 25 foot buffer dev.prohibited. Grasslands should be protected by creating 25 foot setbacks that no development can be done in.

Biological Resources (NHR-A.1.3) Jurisdiction: Union City Protection: Development of areas within 100 feet of areas. Alongside Alameda County Flood Control natural conditions of streams and creek corridors will be protected. The natural character should be restored and development of trails alongside will be encouraged.

Biological Resources: Overlay Plan Jurisdiction: Alameda County, Castro Valley Protection: 100 feet buffer from of the top of the creek. The city protects natural wildlife via conservation. This will feature open space connected to large habitat areas. Conservation encourages landowners to initiate easements that protects wildlife.

Biological Resources (Policy 7-1.1.B) Jurisdiction: Fremont Protection: Assess development within a 100 foot buffer from the top of the riparian bank. Fremont states water conservation is coordinated with Alameda County Water District. Streams are considered a vital water resource protected through irrigation systems and drought tolerant landscaping.

Biology and Natural Resources (Policy 4-P-1) Jurisdiction: Petaluma Protection: Creation of a 50 foot setback from each bank for Petaluma River and its tributaries; insuring that no development shall occur except for greenway enhancement such trails. Setbacks are increased within significant habitat areas such as wetlands.

Briones Hills Agricultural Preservation Area Jurisdiction: Contra Costa County, Martinez, Pleasant Hill, Walnut Creek, Lafayette, Orinda, Richmond, Pinole, and Hercules Protection: The plan supports that no land will be added within the 64 square mile area in order to leave room for urban development. The plan also dictates that the area will stay in public and agricultural use during the planning period.

California Assembly District Source: State of California

California Coastal Commission Jurisdiction: CA Coastal Commission Protection: The Coastal Zone program manages the variety of planning, permitting, and non-regulatory mechanisms to manage its coastal resources, including issuing coastal development permits and reviewing local governments’ Local Coastal Programs.

California Red-Legged Frog Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

California Senate District Source: State of California

California Tiger Salamander Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Chinook Salmon (Threatened) Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

City Limits A city's boundary that defines where urban services and utilities are provided. Source: California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection

Climate Water Deficit The evaporative demand exceeding available soil moisture. Source: USGS-BCM (Flint and Flint)

CNDDB Rare and Protected Species The California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB) is a geographic and tabular inventory of the status and locations of rare plants and animals in California and is maintained by the biogeographic data branch of the California Department of Fish and Wildlife. CNDDB staff work with partners to maintain current lists of rare species and maintain an ever-growing database of GIS-mapped locations for these species. Species occurrence records in the CNDDB come from a variety of sources with differing accuracies. For the Greenprint, we filtered the records in order to report only recent records with a high degree of confidence in spatial accuracy. The table below for the table values used to filter records.

Coastal Resilience The ability of a particular coastal area and its communities to recover from flooding from extreme weather events. Climate change is predicted to have significant adverse effects in coastal zones due to the dangerous combination of storm surge, down-stream flooding, and sea level rise. In the Greenprint, coastal resilience focuses on nature’s role in reducing coastal flood risk. Natural coastal habitats, such as wetlands, act to disperse storm energy and temporarily store flood water, which can reduce the level of vulnerability of coastal communities. Source: USGS/Our Coast Our Future; NOAA CCAP

Coastal Zone policy The area under regulatory control by coastal management agencies over all federal activities and federally licensed activities that affect coastal resources. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Community Resources and Potential Hazards Plan Jurisdiction: Gilroy Protection: Set back development from the entire floodway of the creek, along Uvas Creek and the main branch of Llagas Creek either the entire area of the floodway or 250 feet on either side of the creek centerline, whichever is greater.

Community Separators Jurisdiction: Sonoma County Protection: Preserve the visual identities of communities by maintaining open space areas (Community Separators) between cities and communities.

Concord Reuse Project: Conservation Open Space Jurisdiction: Concord Protection: The Concord Reuse Project site will have portions of its land that are considered open space and thus should be protected accordingly.

Conservancy Fairy Shrimp Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Conservation Action (RIP-8) Jurisdiction: Alameda County Protection: 30 to 100 foot buffer. The EAC Conservation Strategy seeks to preserve endangered species through habitat protection, it acts only as guidance during planning E.G providing mapping system to monitor environmental mitigation measures.

Conservation, Design, and Open Space Plan (Policy CDO 7-1) Jurisdiction: Cloverdale Protection: 100 ft buffer or more encouraged. Setbacks of 300 - 1,000 feet around the Russian River while tributaries setbacks are encouraged at 50 feet on each side of bank.

Conservation easement A voluntary legal agreement between a landowner and a land trust or government agency that permanently limits uses of the land in order to protect its conservation values. The conservation easements in the Greenprint were obtained from the Bay Area Protected Areas Database (BPAD), a regional inventory of lands that have been permanently protected from development. Easements are generally not accessible to the public. For more information about protected lands and the BPAD, visit www.bayarealands.org. Source: Bay Area Protected Areas Database

Conservation Element Plan (Policy 1.3, 2.7, 3.1) Jurisdiction: Los Altos Hills Protection: Protect, preserve and avoid development on environmentally sensitive resources including creeks and riparian corridors .

Conservation Lands Network The recommended configuration of interconnected habitats for preserving biodiversity in the Bay Area. Many factors were considered in the development of the CLN including the conservation targets (coarse and fine filter), goals for those targets, land use, proximity to existing protected lands, and conservation suitability (ecological integrity) of the landscape, in addition to the expert opinion of a focus team scientists. The CLN is complemented by the Bay Area Critical Linkages, which consists of lands that are important for movement of particular focal species such as mountain lion, badger, and deer. Source: Bay Area Open Space Council, Conservation Lands Network

Conservation Plan (Policy 8-89) Jurisdiction: Contra Costa County Protection: 50 ft from riparian buffer. Development that destroys riparian habitats will be held accountable for restoring amount of the habitat destroyed. Setback areas must be specific parameters in order to allow the best maintenance and prevent further damage.

Conservation Plan (Policy CON-14, CON-28) Jurisdiction: Napa County Protection: 100 foot buffer Development by Permit. When impacts to riparian woodland is infeasible, developers shall be responsible for providing and maintaining a similar replacement habitat. While an on-site location is preferred, the County may approve an off-site location.

Contra Costa Goldfields Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Contra Costa Wallflower Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Cooperative Planning Area for Agriculture and Open Space Jurisdiction: Solano County Protection: Cooperative plan for agriculture and open space preservation intends to establish permanent open space between the cities of Benicia, Fairfield and Vallejo mutual agreement of a cooperative planning area for agriculture and open space.

County Line The administrative division of a region which coordinates certain government functions, including law enforcement through court systems and sheriff’s departments, transportation plans, and other services. Source: California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection

County Zoning The zoning designations combined from the eight counties of the Bay Area without San Francisco. This information includes general and specific zoning codes with text descriptions copied from the original county map files online in 2016.

Creek and Drainageway Setbacks (CON-6) Jurisdiction: San Rafael Protection: Maintain a minimum 25 foot development-free setback from the top of creek banks for all new development except for Miller Creek and its tributaries, where a minimum 50 foot setback shall be maintained.

Critical habitat policy The areas (critical habitat units) identified as essential for the conservation of a threatened or endangered species under the Federal Endangered Species Act that may require special management and protection. Source: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

Critical habitat streams policy The waterways and waterbodies identified as essential for the conservation of a threatened or endangered species under the Federal Endangered Species Act that may require special management and protection. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Crop production The average dollar value of crops produced for each agricultural type. Source: USDA and California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection's CALFIRE Fire and Resource Assessment Program (FRAP), in cooperation with California Department of Fish and Wildlife VegCamp program and extensive use of USDA Forest Service Region 5 Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) data, has compiled the "best available" land cover data available for California into a single comprehensive statewide data set.

Davis-Dixon Greenbelt Jurisdiction: Dixon, Davis , the Solano Land Trust, federal and state agencies Protection: Agricultural Reserve Overlay. Permanently protecting the prime farmlands and scenic resources of the area located between the two cities.

Delta Green Ground Beetle Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Delta Primary Zone Jurisdiction: Delta Protection Commission Protection: Delta Protection Act is a policy to protect primary and secondary zone of delta the State to recognize, preserve, and protect those resources for the use and enjoyment of current and future generations.

Delta Smelt Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Development Clustering (Policy 8) Jurisdiction: Union City Protection: Development clusters which are concentrated areas of development surrounded by open space buffers shall be encouraged in the Hillside Area.

Development on Steep Slopes (Policy R-GD 29) Jurisdiction: Santa Clara County Protection: Development initiatives on areas greater than 30 percent slope shall thoroughly evaluated before approval in accordance with all existing regulations. In addition, a public hearing shall be required, and notice should be provided within 300 feet of the subject property

Development Restriction on Class I or II Ridgeline (Ordinance 6-2023) Jurisdiction: Lafayette Protection: Major ridgelines are to be preserved in their natural state as a natural resource and wildlife corridor A setback of 400 feet for a Class I ridgeline and a setback of 250 feet for a Class II ridgeline should be implemented.

Dublin Open Space Initiative 2014 Jurisdiction: Dublin Protection: The provisions of the Dublin Open Space Initiative of 2014 should be carried out and enforced diligently and effectually and uses and the location, amount, visibility, and environmental effects of all proposed development should be reviewed.

East Contra Costa County (NCCP/HCP) Jurisdiction: Brentwood, Clayton, Oakley and Pittsburg, Contra Costa County, Contra Costa County Flood Control and Water Conservation District and East Bay Regional Park District Protection: The East Contra Costa County HCP/NCCP is intended to provide regional conservation and development guidelines to protect natural resources while improving and streamlining the permit process for endangered species and wetland regulations.

Ecology of Creeks and Streams (Policy 1) Jurisdiction: Novato Protection: 50 foot buffer. Establish a Stream Protection Zone for watercourses with a strip of land extending 50 feet laterally outward from the top of each bank.

Environmental Management Plan (Policy EM-2.5) Jurisdiction: San Carlos Protection: Riparian policy with 25 foot buffer. Promote the establishment of native vegetation and the removal of nonnative invasive plants in riparian areas.

Environmental Protection: Slope Regulations (Ordinance 19.08.040) Jurisdiction: Calistoga Protection: No construction, grading or vegetation removal may occur in areas with a slope of 30 percent or greater, unless an exemption is granted. Permitted projects are subject to restrictions and design reviews related to their location.

Erosion and Siltation Control (Implementing Policy 3) Jurisdiction: Dublin Protection: Restrict development on slopes over 30 percent.

Exposure The areas where vegetation is likely to be highly stressed by climate change because the vegetation in those areas will likely experience climate conditions that are only marginally suitable or unsuitable. Source: Data created in the same way as for this report.

Fallow cropland Land previously cultivated that was not in production in 2011, 2013, and 2014. Source: NASA/USGS, Fallowed Area Mapping for Drought Impact Reporting and Decision Making (not downbloadable)

Farmland of Local Importance Land of importance to the local agricultural economy as determined by each county's board of supervisors and a local advisory committees. Source: Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program

Farmland of Statewide Importance Similar to Prime Farmland but with minor shortcomings, such as greater slopes or less ability to store soil moisture. Land must have been used for irrigated agricultural production in the last four years. Source: Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program

Fire Risk Source: Association of Bay Area Governments

Fish passage priority barrier Human-made barriers to salmonid migration, including road-stream crossings, irrigation diversions, and dams, that have been deemed priorities for removal by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife based on significance to fish migration. Migration passage impediments and delays affect both adult and juvenile fish. Given the magnitude and severity of barriers, and the decline of salmonid populations, reconnecting isolated stream habitat is an important priority for the restoration of impaired anadromous salmon and steelhead stocks. Source: CalFish

Fish passage total barrier Complete, human-made barrier to fish passage for all anadromous species at all life stages at all seasonal flow levels. Total barriers to salmonid migration include some road-stream crossings and dams. Source: CalFish

Franciscan Manzanita Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Franklin Canyon (Measure M) Jurisdiction: Hercules Protection: The purpose of this ordinance is to protect Franklin canyon and nearby open space lands from harmful and unnecessary development.

General Conservation Policies Policies that provide limited protection to a range of natural and agricultural values. They include rural growth measures and open space reserves that are set aside permanently or temporarily by a single jurisdiction or among several jurisdictions. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

General Plan Book B (O-25, R-RC 31, 32, 37, 38) Jurisdiction: Santa Clara County Protection: 100 foot of the top of a creek bank. Keep natural streams, riparian areas,freshwater marshes by protecting from pollution, development impact, hazardous chemicals; adopting tree removal regulations,protecting endemic and endangered species.

General Plan: Open Space Protection Jurisdiction: Walnut Creek Protection: The development of land with slopes of 20 percent or greater or within 75 vertical feet of any ridgeline is prohibited.

Geographical Pressures The undeveloped locations where it is easier to build new development, including parcels adjacent to existing and recent development as well as major roads, and low sloped lands.

Groundwater Recharge Water that penetrates below the root zone, infiltrating soils and potentially replenishing aquifers. Source: USGS-BCM (Flint and Flint)

Growth Projections - Plan Bay Area, Statewide Plan Bay Area 2013, which projects growth patterns through 2040, presented a set of development scenarios with which to compare performance targets against regional goals, as well as for its environmental review process. The Regional Growth Trend scenario shows how the region would grow if current growth patterns failed to comply to existing growth boundaries and expanded to low-lying areas for continued urbanization along the city or county’s edges. The California Natural Resources Agency released a statewide report with results of a series of baseline population and urban growth projections for the state’s urban counties through the years 2020 and 2050. This data was presented in map and table form; these projections are based on extrapolations of current population trends and recent urban development trends.

Habitat policy Areas identified as important for protection and conservation in jurisdictional plans and in the Bay Area's Habitat Conservation Plans. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Health and Safety Element (Policy HS 2.4) Jurisdiction: Fairfield Protection: Measure T permits only very low densities of one unit per 20 acres for existing parcels.

Hill Area Open Space Jurisdiction: Fremont Protection: The Hill Area Open Space designation applies to most of the open lands defined by voter-approved Measure A (Hillside Initiative of 1981) and Measure T (Hill Area Initiative of 2002).

Hill Face Open Space (Measure T) Jurisdiction: Fremont Protection: Measure T permits only very low densities of one unit per 20 acres for existing parcels.

Hillside and Rural Preservation (Policy LU-17.6) Jurisdiction: San Jose Protection: No development allowed along ridges and other major hillside areas with slope greater than 30 percent.

Hillside Combining District: Building Restriction (Ordinance 18.44.030) Jurisdiction: Morgan Hill Protection: No construction allowed on areas greater than 20 percent with exception of development proposal that is not conflicted with this policy.

Hillside, Creek, and Ridgeline Area Development Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Hillside Development (Policy 2) Jurisdiction: Vallejo Protection: Projects for building in Planned Development areas which have natural slopes exceeding 10 percent will be evaluated in order to make sure that the natural lay of the land is kept.

Hillside Development (Policy LU-7.1) Jurisdiction: Hayward Protection: The city will protect hillside areas, retaining natural slopes and sensitive areas. This involves protection of slopes, which are deemed unstable such as those greater than 25 percent.

Hillside Open Space (Measure A) Jurisdiction: Fremont Protection: Measure A prevents land from exceeding one unit per acre or one unit per four acres for constrained lands.

Hillside policy Hillside areas identified as important for protection or to minimize landslide threat based upon the physical descriptions in city and county general plans. Policies assess the slope of a hill, the area of a hill above a certain elevation, and the area within a certain vertical or horizontal distance from a ridge line. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Hillside Project Development Standards (Ordinance 19.26.050) Jurisdiction: Novato Protection: No development potential shall be allowed for areas with average slopes of greater than 25 percent.

Hillside Protection (Policy 9-P-6) Jurisdiction: Pittsburg Protection: Building pads and structural elements shall be located at least 150 feet away, horizontally, from the crest of a major ridgeline.

Historical extent of Bay The extent of San Francisco and San Pablo bays as it likely appeared about 200 years ago, when Europeans first arrived in the region. Learn more about the baylands at www.sfei.org/ecoatlas. Source: San Francisco Estuary Institute

Hotspots of species requiring compensatory mitigation Cumulative hectares of suitable habitat in a 25 hectare region for species that may be impacted by proposed transportation projects in the next two decades. These species have some regulatory protective status that requires compensatory action to mitigate development impacts. Source: Bay Area Conservation Mitigation Assessment Huber et al. 2016

Hydrogeologically Vulnerable areas Geologic conditions over aquifers that enable higher rates of recharge and therefore make the aquifer more susceptible to surface contaminants Source: State Water Board

Impaired waterbodies Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act gives states the responsibility of preparing a list of surface waters (e.g., water bodies and streams) not meeting water quality standards due to pollutants. To comply with 303(d), State and Regional Water Boards assess water quality monitoring data for California’s surface waters every two years to determine if they contain pollutants at levels that exceed protective water quality standards. Water body and pollutants that exceed protective water quality standards are considered “impaired” and are placed on the State’s 303(d). Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Impaired waterways - 303d listed streams Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act gives States the responsibility of preparing a list of surface waters (e.g., water bodies and streams) not meeting water quality standards due to pollutants. To comply with 303(d), State and Regional Water Boards assess water quality monitoring data for California’s surface waters every two years to determine if they contain pollutants at levels that exceed protective water quality standards. Water body and pollutants that exceed protective water quality standards are considered “impaired” and are placed on the State’s 303(d). Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Important habitat for T&E Vertebrates An index of the habitat value to threatened and endangered (under the Endangered Species Act) birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. It combines threatened and endangered species richness measured by the overlap of species ranges and the suitability of the vegetation to support each of those species. Source: Custom TNC product (not available for download)

Key Riparian Corridor As part of the Conservation Lands Network (CLN), Bay Area streams were prioritized for conservation. All native fish species found in San Francisco Bay Area streams were selected as conservation targets, with the goal of maintaining healthy assemblages of native fishes. Priority 1 is existing steelhead and rearing habitat and current and historic coho habitat. Priority 2 is any healthy native fish populations. Learn more at www.bayarealands.org. Source: Bay Area Open Space Council, Conservation Lands Network

Landscape refugia The areas where vegetation will not likely be stressed by climate change because the vegetation in those areas will likely experience climate conditions that are within the range of conditions they are currently found in in California. Source: Created by same method as in this report.

Landscape Resilience - resilient areas An index that indicates the presence and accessibility of microhabitat options by quantifying both the permeability of the landscape and the diversity in potential “wetness” and “heat” based on topography. Source: Custom TNC product (not available for download)

Land Use Element (Policy LU 3-2, Implementation LU 3-2.A) Jurisdiction: Cloverdale Protection: Within urban growth boundaries, apply a hillside ordinance restricting development for any areas above 400 feet elevation and for properties over 20 percent slope.

Linkage highway barrier Highways and other major roads can bisect otherwise intact habitat linkages, creating barriers to wildlife movement. The Bay Area Open Space Council prepared a geographic database of such highway barriers throughout the Bay Area via visual analysis of aerial photography, maps of vegetation, and maps of habitat linkages. Source: Bay Area Open Space Council, Conservation Lands Network

Local Coastal Program (LCP) Jurisdiction: San Mateo County Protection: Review development proposals in designated hazardous areas and regulation of development on 30 percent or steeper slopes prior to issuance of any development permit.

Longhorn Fairy Shrimp Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Marbled Murrelet Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Market Activity - Current Projects Development proposals and approved projects in a city or county entitlement process that lie outside of San Francisco Bay Area's contiguous urbanized lands. This also includes lands under speculative pressure, though no official planning proposal has been submitted to a jurisdiction’s planning department. This includes projects and boundary expansions proposed in the last five years on open space but that have since been rescinded from the entitlement and planning process. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Measure C Agricultural Core Jurisdiction: Contra Costa County Protection: This land is designated to preserve and protect the County farmlands most capable of the production of food and fiber from Measure C in 1990. Its an attempt to maintain economically viable agricultural units while discourage "ranchette" housing development.

Measure P Jurisdiction: Napa County Protection: Measure P extends the provisions of Measure J, the Agricultural Lands Preservation Initiative, which voters passed in 1990 to 2058. Specifically it continues to require voter approval for land designation changes in agricultural and watershed areas.

Measure P Agricultural Lands Preservation Initiative Jurisdiction: Napa County Protection: Changes to the General Plan for minimum parcel size and maximum building intensity of lands designated for agriculture and watersheds cannot occur unless approved by the voters, with certain limited exceptions.

Measure T Orderly Growth Initiative Jurisdiction: Solano County Protection: The Orderly Growth Initiative focuses residential growth in the county's seven cities, rather than the unincorporated areas. Lands zoned for agriculture cannot change without a popular vote thereby supporting the County’s economy and quality of life.

Morgan Hill Greenbelt Jurisdiction: Morgan Hill Protection: Greenbelt, to demarcate and distinguish urban area of Morgan Hill; located outside of ULL; include areas with steep hillside, severe geologic/environmental constraints, open space & located on the fringe of the community & not include unincorporated areas.

Municipal drinking water supply watersheds Watersheds that supply water to a water utility. Source: The Nature Conservancy

Natural and Historic/Cultural Resources (Policy P8.3.2) Jurisdiction: American Canyon Protection: 100 foot buffer. Unless no feasible alternative exists, prohibit developments that alter the biological integrity of riparian corridors. Damaged habitat may be replaced with a habitat of equivalent value.

Natural Baylands The many types of tidally influenced natural habitats, such as mudflats and marshes, found at the interface of uplands and the bay estuary. Source: NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program

Natural Hazards (Policy 10-P-1 B) Jurisdiction: Petaluma Protection: On sites with slopes greater than 30 percent, require all development to be clustered outside of the 30 percent slope areas, and preferably on land less than 15 percent in slope, where possible.

Naturalness of Active River Area The material contribution areas, the meander belts, the floodplains, and riparian wetlands of a river or stream. Naturalness of Active River Area are those parts of the Active River Area that are still in a natural or semi-natural condition and are assumed to contribute to healthy river/stream function and water-related ecosystem services. Source: California Integrated Assessment of Watershed Health (PDF report)

Natural Resources Plan: Riparian Resources Protection (NR-1 to NR-9) Jurisdiction: Healdsburg Protection: 100 foot setback from Russian River, 35-foot setback. From Foss Creek, 25-foot setback from other streams. Moreover new development will be located to maximize the riparian vegetation protection.

Natural Resources Policy: Stream and Riverbank Protection (NR-1.1) Jurisdiction: Napa (city) Protection: 100 foot buffer from waterway. All future waterway projects and projects within 100 feet of a waterway will be reviewed to ensure that they minimize their effects on surrounding habitats. Native plantings are encouraged along waterways to stabilize banks and reduce stormwater runoff.

Northern Spotted Owl Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Open Space and Conservation of Resources Jurisdiction: Benicia Protection: Hillside areas that have slope over 30 percent are to be kept as open space areas.

Open Space and Conservation Plan (Policy OSC-22) Jurisdiction: Tiburon Protection: 50 to 100 foot setback from riparian buffer. An environmental assessment is required for developments proposed on sites that may contain special-status species, sensitive natural communities, native wildlife nurseries and nesting locations.

Open Space and Conservation Plan (Policy P10) Jurisdiction: Livermore Protection: The city plan restricts development in a riparian corridor which extends, to prohibit the conversion of land, to cultivated agriculture or allowing animals, which reduce the quality of water.

Open Space and Conservation Plan (Policy P8.3) Jurisdiction: San Ramon Protection: 100 foot buffer from riparian centerline. Structures are not to be located within 100 feet of a creek or stream channel as identified on the Zone Map. In addition, a horizontal distance should be considered by a drainage report.

Open Space and Conservation (Policy P2.1-2, P2.1-3) Jurisdiction: Calistoga Protection: 30 foot buffer from stream. Developments within a protective stream buffer must include a riparian habitat management plan. Moreover, all waterways shall be buffered to prevent development and preserve open spaces around rivers and streams.

Open Space Element (Principle 14) Jurisdiction: Portola Valley Protection: Areas including with slopes generally over 30 percent hazardous to the public safety and welfare should be retained as open space.

Open Space (Policy B) Jurisdiction: Larkspur Protection: Designate lands above 350 feet in the Northridge area of Larkspur as open space.

Open Space (Policy OSC-B-5) Jurisdiction: Santa Rosa Protection: Require a Hillside Development Permit under certain development conditions where a portion of the site has a slope greater than 10 percent.

Open Space Policy Protection 2017 Open space is covered by policy measures that vary in their efficacy at protecting farmland or natural resource lands. High policy protection lands are protected by one or more policy measures that prohibit most urban development on that land. Medium policy protection lands are protected by one or more policy measures where development is intended to be limited but is still possible with a special permit. Low policy protection lands do not fall under any specific protective policy measures.

Open Space Preservation (Policy OS1.5) Jurisdiction: Moraga Protection: Development is prohibited if the slope on the ridge is greater than 20 percent and if the elevation of the ridge is more than 800 feet.

Open Space Reserve Jurisdiction: Half Moon Bay Protection: The city has designated portion of areas as open space reserve consistent with the policy of the Coastal Act; including areas currently in some form of agricultural use and areas not now in production. These areas will not be converted to urban uses.

Orderly Growth Initiative (Measure T) Jurisdiction: Solano County Protection: The Orderly Growth Initiative focuses residential growth in the county's seven cities, rather than the unincorporated areas. Lands zoned for agriculture cannot change without a popular vote thereby supporting the County’s economy and quality of life.

City Planning Areas A city boundary not regulated by the county Local Agency Formation Commission, showing city planning horizons in longer terms than Spheres of Influence. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Policy A.1.1 Jurisdiction: Windsor Protection: Developments proposed on slopes greater than 20 percent will require assessment of stability.

Policy for Reduction of Soil Erosion (OSRC-11a, 11b) Jurisdiction: Sonoma County Protection: Design discretionary projects so that structures and roads are not located on slopes of 30 percent or greater. Include erosion control measures for any discretionary project involving construction or grading on lands with slopes over 10 percent.

Policy LU-P24.1 Jurisdiction: Vacaville Protection: Areas with ridges and slopes of 25 percent or greater should stay undeveloped in order to keep agricultural areas intact.

Policy N-9, N-10, N-11 Jurisdiction: Palo Alto Protection: Apply flood control and public safety measures that preserve the natural environment and habitat of creek; work in collaboration in order to enhance riparian corridors and provide adequate flood control and preserve integrity of riparian corridors.

Portola Valley Ordinance 2007-369 Jurisdiction: Portola Valley Protection: 55 foot from riparian buffer. As an objective quality, where appropriate, enhancing and restoring streams and lesser drainage courses and corridors, unique resources in the regions are the necessity of having the standard open spaces.

Preservation of Hillside Areas as Open Space (Action 4.1) Jurisdiction: Morgan Hill Protection: Preserve El Toro Mountain in open space above the 500 foot contour line on all sides, with the exception of the Llagas and Paradise Valleys where all land above the 600 foot contour elevation should be preserved.

Preservation of Hillside Areas as Open Space (Action 4.5) Jurisdiction: Morgan Hill Protection: Hillside Ordinance should be applied for a development on areas with an average slope in excess of 10 percent.

Preservation of Hillside Areas as Open Space (Actions 4.1, 4.5) Jurisdiction: Morgan Hill Protection: Hillside Ordinance should be applied for a development on areas with an average slope in excess of 10 percent while construction is not allowed on area greater than 20 percent slope. Preserve El Toro Mountain at an elevation above 500 feet and Llagas and Paradise Valleys above 600 feet.

Prime farmland Farmland with the best combination of physical and chemical features able to sustain long term agricultural production. This land has the soil quality, growing season, and moisture supply needed to produce sustained high yields. Land must have been used for irrigated agricultural production in the last four years. Source: Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program

Priority Conservation Areas 2015 Lands that provide agricultural, natural resource, scenic, recreational, and/or ecological values and ecosystem functions. These areas are identified through consensus by local jurisdictions and park/open space districts as lands in need of protection due to pressure from urban development or other factors. PCAs are categorized by four designations: Natural Landscapes, Agricultural Lands, Urban Greening and Regional Recreation. Source: Association of Bay Area Governments

Priority groundwater basins California Statewide Groundwater Elevation Monitoring priority basins are determined by the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) according to the following criteria: overlying population, projected growth of overlying population, public supply wells, total wells, overlying irrigated acreage, reliance on groundwater as the primary source of water, impacts on the groundwater; including overdraft, subsidence, saline intrusion, and other water quality degradation, and any other information determined to be relevant by CDWR. Source: California Department of Water Resources

Prominent Ridgelines and Slopes (Ordinance 19.40.050) Jurisdiction: Cupertino Protection: Construction or improvements of structures limited in specific hillsides include keeping 15 percent site line from a prominent ridge, and hillside exception required for development with greater than 500 square feet area on slopes equal or greater than 30 percent.

Protect and Preserve Open Space (Policy 1.2: Program 1.2) Jurisdiction: Los Altos Protection: Leave intact and put requirements to set aside of development generally on areas in excess of 30 percent hillside slope.

Protected lands by fee or easement Land that has a permanent limitation on development (i.e., conversion to intensive human uses). Permanent protection typically comes in the form of fee title ownership by a conservation or park entity (e.g. land trust, open space district, regional/state/federal park agency) or via a conservation easement. Examples of land protected by fee title ownership include dedicated parkland or nature preserves. Source: Bay Area Protected Areas Database

Protection of Ridges (Policy 2.7) Jurisdiction: San Anselmo Protection: The ridge zone shall extend 150 horizontal feet in both directions from the lowest elevation of the ridgeline, or 50 feet vertically, whichever is more restrictive. Development prohibited on land with an elevation above 150 feet.

Publicly accessible recreational lands Publicly accessible parks, preserves and trails, ranging in size from less than one acre to over 50,000 acres, and managed and maintained by the region’s many local, regional, state, and federal agencies and organizations. Source: Bay Area Protected Areas Database

Rare and Protected Species Source: California Natural Diversity Database

Regional Connectivity A wall-to-wall picture of regional habitat connectivity for plant and animal species whose movement is inhibited by developed or agricultural land uses. Source: Custom TNC product (not available for download)

Regional Connectivity - Channelized These areas of channelized connectivity represent the last remaining natural habitat linkages through a region. A landscape of connected habitats is critical to the survival of wildlife and plants by enabling movement for daily activity and dispersal. In a changing climate, connectivity will become even more important to species survival by enabling species to move to more suitable habitat as needed.

Regional Connectivity - Diffuse These areas of diffuse connectivity contribute to regional connectivity as broad, unfragmented lands that allow wildlife and plants to move freely. A landscape of connected habitats is critical to the survival of wildlife and plants by enabling movement for daily activity and dispersal. In a changing climate, connectivity will become even more important to species survival by enabling species to move to more suitable habitat as needed.

Regional Connectivity - Intensified These areas of intensified connectivity are natural lands that provide the few remaining options for natural habit linkages through a region. A landscape of connected habitats is critical to the survival of wildlife and plants by enabling movement for daily activity and dispersal. In a changing climate, connectivity will become even more important to species survival by enabling species to move to more suitable habitat as needed.

Regional Open Space Preserves (Policy OS.6.3)

Regional Trails Regional trails and trail systems are designed to serve populations greater than one community, often connecting multiple communities. Regional trails can be paved or unpaved and are mostly off-street. The Bay Area is fortunate to have well over a thousand miles of regional trails. The two premier regional trails are the Bay Area Ridge Trail, which circles the San Francisco Bay along the mountain ridgelines, and the San Francisco Bay Trail, which encircles the Bay at the shoreline. Other regional trails include the California Coastal Trail, Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail, Napa Valley Vine Trail, the West County Trail in Sonoma County, and the many hundreds of miles of paved off-street trails in Contra Costa County managed by East Bay Regional Park District. Trail completion is a priority of Bay Area conservation and recreation agencies and organizations and was also a focus of many Priority Conservation Areas submitted to the Association of Bay Area Governments in 2015. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Reservoir catchment areas Surface water storage watersheds are identified by the combined volume of all reservoirs within their watershed system and measured according to the average reservoir storage volume. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Residential Communities Design Principles (Policy 1.11.7b) Jurisdiction: American Canyon Protection: Require developments to preserve the topographic character of hillsides and canyons by concentrating projects on lesser slopes, no mass grading on slopes exceeding 25 percent.

Residential Communities Design Principles (Policy 1.11.7c) Jurisdiction: American Canyon Protection: Prohibit development on slopes exceeding 50 percent and maintenance of natural grades in higher elevation areas.

Residential Uses (Policy 26) Jurisdiction: Alameda County Protection: In no case shall required housing be built on or which protrudes over hilltops or ridgelines, on slopes of more than 20 percent critical wildlife habitat, or within 100 feet of a riparian corridor.

Resource Conservation & Management Plan Jurisdiction: Rio Vista Protection: 100 feet for perennial streams, 50 feet from intermittent streams. Depending upon the circumstance and kind of project, appropriate setbacks must be applied to protect sensitive habitats.

Resource Conservation Overlay Jurisdiction: Solano County Protection: Solano's Resource Conservation identifies and protects areas of the county with special resource management needs.

Resource Implementation Program (RS.I-67) Jurisdiction: Solano County Protection: Varying 20, 50, 100, or 150 foot buffer from streams. An ordinance has to be developed that protects riparian water quality through proper buffer zones that keep riparian areas an appropriate width apart from one another depending upon the size of the developed land, respective buffer zones must be set.

Ridge and Upland Greenbelt (Program DES-4.e) Jurisdiction: Marin County Protection: Protect views of the Ridge and Upland Greenbelt Areas by amending policies and maps to identify a border on parcels that abut the area. Developments are to adhere to requirements that include visually sensitive designs and rural densities.

Ridgeline Development (Ordinance 17.060.050) Jurisdiction: Fairfax Protection: Developments within 100 vertical feet or 150 horizontal feet of a major scenic ridgeline requires additional permitting.

Ridgeline Policies (Policies OSC-10, OSC-11) Jurisdiction: Tiburon Protection: When considering open space and development interests, undeveloped ridgelines are to have the highest priority. Developments and landscaping shall be setback a minimum of 150 horizontal feet and 50 vertical feet of either side of Tiburon Ridge.

Ridgelines and Hillsides Protection (Measure PP) Jurisdiction: Pleasanton Protection: Placing housing units or structures on slopes of 25 percent or greater or within 100 vertical feet of a ridgeline is prohibited.

Ridgelines and Hillsides Protection (Program 21.3) Jurisdiction: Pleasanton Protection: Placing housing units or structures on slopes of 25 percent or greater or within 100 vertical feet of a ridgeline is prohibited.

Riparian Corridors (Policy ER-2.2) Jurisdiction: San Jose Protection: 100 foot setback from riparian habitat. Ensure developments are consistent with Riparian Corridor Policy. implement appropriate measures to restore, and/or mitigate damage; update Policy; restrict or carefully regulate development in streamside.

Riparian Corridors (Policy OS-30) Jurisdiction: Rohnert Park Protection: 100 foot buffer from creeks. Creek protection zones extend at least 50 feet from each bank. Wider buffers are to be established in significant habitat areas. No development in these areas but for greenway enhancement such as trails and bikeways.

Riparian Policies Riparian policies limit or prohibit new construction within a certain buffered distance from rivers and streams to avoid adverse impacts of urban development. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Runoff Water that flows over the surface of the land into streams and rivers Source: USGS-BCM (Flint and Flint)

San Bruno Mountain Area (HCP) Jurisdiction: San Mateo County Protection: San Bruno Mountain Area HCP is a way to protect and improve habitat for an endangered species in conjunction with limited development on San Bruno Mountain.

San Jose Coyote Valley Greenbelt Jurisdiction: Morgan Hill Protection: Work in collaboration with the City of San Jose and Santa Clara County in order to ensure the San Jose Coyote Valley Greenbelt continues providing the non-urban buffer for the north side of Morgan Hill.

Santa Clara County Habitat Conservation Plan: Riparian Policy Jurisdiction: Santa Clara County Protection: 150 to 200 foot riparian buffer. Main goal of HCP is to gain authorization for incidental take of covered species under the ESA and the NCCP Act for activities which will occur in accordance with approved land-use and capital-improvement plans.

Santa Clara Valley (NCCP/HCP) Jurisdiction: Santa Clara Valley Habitat Agency: Gilroy, Morgan Hill, San José, Santa Clara County, Santa Clara Valley Water District, and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority Protection: A primary goal of HCP is to obtain authorization for incidental take of covered species under the ESA and the NCCP Act for covered activities which will occur in accordance with approved land-use and capital-improvement plans.

Santa Cruz Tarplant Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Santa Rosa Plain Conservation Strategy Study Area Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: Create a long-term conservation program sufficient to mitigate potential adverse effects on listed species due to development on the Santa Rosa Plain.

Scenic Landscape Unit (Policy OSRC-2a) Jurisdiction: Sonoma County Protection: Avoid amendments to increase residential density in Scenic Landscape Units in excess of one unit per ten acres. The land use plan may designate a lower density or larger minimum lot size.

Scenic Resources Policies (Policies 9-14, 9-21) Jurisdiction: Contra Costa County Protection: By using zoning measures amongst other appropriate measures, hillsides with a slope of 26 percent or greater will be not be constructed upon. Additionally, there should be no construction within 50 feet or on top of major scenic ridgelines.

Sea level rise The risks of both hazards are expected to increase with climate change. To characterize these risks, a sea level rise scenario (50 cm of rise with a 100-year storm event) and a flooding scenario (a 500-year flood) were combined to form a single likely water-related hazard zone given expected climate change for the region. Source: USGS/Our Coast Our Future; NOAA CCAP

Sea level rise -- 5' inundation area Global warming is melting polar ice which is causing the level of the sea to rise. Climate projections for the Bay Area over the next 80 years include possible sea level rise of five feet by the year 2100. Source: NOAA

Sensitive Habitat: Riparian Corridor (Policy 7.11) Jurisdiction: San Mateo County Protection: Local Coastal Plan 50 foot buffer, 30 feet for intermittent streams. Develop guidance for Vegetation control in Riparian Corridors should set 4th direction on procedures to decrease flood threats and an award must be given to the responsible corridor managers.

Sensitive Local Resource Areas Jurisdiction: Rio Vista Protection: It should be ensured that the development process respects the unique characteristics and functions of Sensitive Local Resource Areas including avoidance of disturbance; on-site restoration and in-kind restoration.

Single-Family Residential: Conservation Jurisdiction: San Anselmo Protection: Development prohibited on land with an elevation above 150 feet and should be protected and placed in a special conservation zone.

Single-Family Residential: Conservation and Protection of Ridges (Policy 2.7) Jurisdiction: San Anselmo Protection: The ridge zone shall extend 150 horizontal feet in both directions from the lowest elevation of the ridgeline, or 50 feet vertically, whichever is more restrictive. Development prohibited on land with an elevation above 150 feet.

Site Grading (Policy 10) Jurisdiction: Saratoga Protection: Construction is not allowed in an area with an average slope that exceeds 30 percent or an area that exceeds 40 percent natural slope under the structure. Additional requirement must be consistent the Measure "A" area, or hillside specific plan.

Slope Restrictions (Policy 25.11) Jurisdiction: Gilroy Protection: Slopes of 10 to 30 percent may be suitable for low intensity, low density development, subject to site-specific review and approval.

Soft Bird's-Beak Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Soil Carbon Storage The carbon content in soil organic matter from microorganisms, root exudates, decomposed organisms, and soil biota. Soil organic carbon storage is summarized to a depth of 30cm. Source: USDA NRCS

Solano Multi-Species (HCP) Jurisdiction: Solano County Water Agency, Vacaville, Fairfield, Suisun City, Vallejo, Solano Irrigation District, Maine Prairie Water District Protection: The Solano HCP establishes a framework for complying with endangered species regulations while accommodating future urban growth, development of water-related and other public infrastructure undertaken by the Plan Participants.

Sonoma County Biotic Habitat designation Jurisdiction: Sonoma County Protection: Protection of these areas helps to maintain the natural vegetation, support native plant and animal species, protect water quality and air quality, and preserve the quality of life, diversity and unique character of the County.

Sonoma County Low/Highly Variable Water Yield Area (Zone 4) Jurisdiction: Sonoma County Protection: Require proof of groundwater with sufficient yield and quality to support proposed uses in Class 4 water areas without causing or exacerbating overdraft condition in groundwater basin or subbasin, require test wells or community water systems.

Sonoma County Marginal Groundwater Area (Zone 3) Jurisdiction: Sonoma County Protection: Require proof of groundwater with sufficient yield and quality to support proposed uses in Class 3 water areas, test wells may be required, must demonstrate proposed use will not cause or exacerbate overdraft condition in groundwater basin or subbasin.

Sonoma County Open Space Habitat Connectivity Corridors Jurisdiction: Sonoma County Protection: Habitat Connectivity Corridors are areas where property owners are encouraged to promote wildlife friendly modifications to their property such as the installation of wildlife friendly fencing; includes Sonoma Valley Corridor and Laguna West Corridor.

Sonoma County Open Space Marshes/Wetlands Jurisdiction: Sonoma county Protection: Preserve and restore freshwater marsh habitat of the Laguna de Santa Rosa area, the extensive marsh areas along the Petaluma River, another tidal marshes, and freshwater marshes such as the Pitkin, Kenwood, Cunningham, and Atascadero Marshes.

Sonoma County Ordinance 6089 Jurisdiction: Sonoma County Protection: Protect and enhance riparian corridors along streams in order to balance multiple uses. Establishment of streamside conservation areas on both sides of designated riparian corridors ranging 200 feet from Russian River, 100 feet from Flatland and 50 feet from other riparian corridors.

South Livermore Valley Area Plan Jurisdiction: Livermore Protection: The plan seeks to protect, enhance, and increase viticulture and other cultivated agriculture in the South Livermore Valley, directing development away from potential agricultural land.

Standards : 4. Ridgeline setback Jurisdiction: San Ramon Protection: No structure will be located within 100 feet of a major ridgelines and 50 feet of minor ridgelines.

Stanford (HCP) Jurisdiction: Stanford University Protection: The Stanford HCP establishes a comprehensive conservation program that protects, restores and enhances habitat areas; monitors and reports on covered species populations; and avoids and minimizes impacts on species and their habitats.

Steelhead (Endangered) Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Steelhead (Threatened) Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Steller Sea Lion Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Stream Conservation Areas (Policy BIO-4.1) Jurisdiction: Marin County Protection: 20 foot buffer minimum in city corridor; 100 foot minimum in coastal, baylands corridors; 20 feet minimum in streams. Inside the City-Centered Corridor, a setback from streams is 100 feet for parcels above 2 acres, 50 feet between 0.50 and 2 acres and 20 feet for 1/2 acres.

Suisun Marsh Protection Area: Primary Management Area Jurisdiction: San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission and the Department of Fish and Game Protection: Existing uses within primary management area (managed wetlands, tidal marshes, lowland grasslands and seasonal marshes) should continue and both land and water areas should be protected and managed to enhance the quality and diversity of the habitats.

Suisun Marsh Protection Area: Secondary Management Area Jurisdiction: San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission and the Department of Fish and Game Protection: Secondary management area should be act as a buffer area insulating the habitats within the primary management area from adverse impacts of urban development and other uses and land practices incompatible with preservation of the Marsh.

Suisun Thistle Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Suitable Grazing land The land on which existing vegetation is suited to the grazing of livestock.

Tidewater Goby Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Unique farmland Farmland of lesser quality soils used for the production of the State's leading agricultural crops. This land is usually irrigated, but may include non-irrigated orchards or vineyards as found in some climatic zones in California. Land must have been cropped in the last four years. Source: Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program

Urban Growth Boundary/Urban Limit Line A planning boundary of a city and/or county that defines where urban growth can and cannot occur. The strength of a boundary can be attributed to the body that approves the expansion of a UGB, as a vote of the people from an approved ballot measure or by the vote of a city council or board of county supervisors. These UGBs are mapped from current General Plan maps and Local Agency Formation Commission) documents.

Urban Service Area A planning area regulated by each county’s Local Agency Formation Commission that delineates where land is available for development and services. California Gov. Code Section 56080 describes it as “undeveloped, or agricultural land, either incorporated or unincorporated, within the sphere of influence of a city, which is served by urban facilities, utilities, and services.” Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Uses and Development of Lands Identified as Scenic Hillside or Major Ridgeline Areas (Ordinance 32-69.4) Jurisdiction: Danville Protection: No construction of buildings will be done on areas of land 100 feet below the centerline of a ridgeline or on a slope of less than 30 percent in steepness.

Vacaville-Dixon Greenbelt Jurisdiction: Vacaville-Dixon Greenbelt Authority Protection: Agricultural Reserve Overlay. Prioritize lands located between the two cities remain an agricultural landscape in perpetuity, implemented through acquisition from willing sellers and resale of the properties with a permanent conservation easement.

Vacaville-Fairfield-Solano Greenbelt Jurisdiction: Vacaville Fairfield-Solano Greenbelt Authority Protection: Permanent, one-mile-wide, open space greenbelt that serves as a community separator, a setting for recreational activities, a buffer between agricultural and urban areas, and as an ultimate limit for urban growth.

Vernal Pool Fairy Shrimp Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Vernal pools Vernal pools are seasonal depressional wetlands that are covered by shallow water for variable periods from winter to spring, but may be completely dry for most of the summer and fall. These wetlands range in size from small puddles to shallow lakes and are usually found in a gently sloping plain of grassland. The inventory in the Greenprint combines the knowledge of vernal pools and vernal pool complexes distributed across the Bay Area from local and federal agencies. Understanding the extent of these unique ecosystems is vital for the monitoring of and recovery planning for listed and sensitive species that are uniquely adapted to live in this environment. Source: SFEI: http://www.sfei.org/BAARI#sthash.kMAn8b1r.dpbs; CA Department of Fish & Game: https://map.dfg.ca.gov/metadata/ds0036.html

Vernal Pool Tadpole Shrimp Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

View Protection Program: Structures and Related Improvements Jurisdiction: Napa County Protection: Administrative approval might be granted if the average slope of each development area is less than 30 percent.

Water quality index An index of water quality based on conductivity, turbidity, and nitrate concentration. Source: Based on data in this report

Watershed Policies Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Watersheds Boundary Topographic divides and delineated areas where surface-water runoff drains into a common surface-water body, such as a lake or section of a stream. It is important to consider that while watershed boundaries identify surface-water runoff divides, they often do not represent groundwater flow divides. Groundwater flows generally follow the topographic flow direction, just as surface water runoff does. However, the movement of water in the subsurface is more complex and groundwater flow directions may not coincide with surface water flow directions. Source: USGS Watershed Boundary Dataset

Western Snowy Plover Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.

Wetlands Areas where water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year, including during the growing season. Water saturation largely determines how the soil develops and the types of plant and animal communities living in and on the soil. Wetlands may support both aquatic and terrestrial species. The prolonged presence of water creates conditions that favor the growth of specially adapted plants and promote the development of characteristic wetland soils. Source: SFEI: http://www.sfei.org/BAARI#sthash.kMAn8b1r.dpbs; US Fish & Wildlife Service: https://www.fws.gov/wetlands/

Williamson Act 2006 Jurisdiction: Alameda County, Contra Costa County, Marin County, Napa County, San Francisco, San Mateo County, Santa Clara County, Solano County, Sonoma County Protection: California law that provides relief of property tax to owners of farmland and open-space land in exchange for a ten-year agreement that the land will not be developed or otherwise converted to another use.

Williamson Act properties Williamson Act properties are enrolled in a California program providing property tax relief to owners of farmland and open space land in exchange for a ten-year agreement that the land will not be developed or otherwise converted to another use. The state payments to counties to support this program ceased in FY 2009, and so the decision to continue the program is being made on a county by county basis. Source: Greenbelt Alliance

Winters Agricultural Preserve Jurisdiction: Solano County Protection: Agricultural Reserve Overlay.

Yellow Larkspur Jurisdiction: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Alameda County, Contra Costa County Protection: When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) must consider whether there are areas of habitat believed to be essential to the species' conservation. Those areas may be proposed for designation as critical habitat. Read more on the USFWS site.